1 Understand the appropriate conduct for a particular Creative Media Workplace
1.1 Describe and compare the cultures of different Creative Media Workplaces
Within the creative media industry there are a wide variety of companies and areas of expertise. The cultures of these are inevitably going to differentiate due to their environments and the type of work they are approaching.
Digital technologies have already dramatically impacted the culture around work and working. Digital has helped lead to a more casual attitude between co-working peers and bosses. This is normally determined by the different types of work ethics and values.
For example, In the Marketing and Branding company that I am doing my apprenticeship with, the atmosphere is very friendly, relaxed and casual. There is always radio on in the background and the freedom to talk about about and share personal stories. Although we do keep a balance and ensure that a mid-month catch up meeting is organized and tasks are performed to a high-standard. Our dress code is simply smart/casual which I believe allows us to work comfortably and happy in the workplace. However, some other companies will be a lot more formal and go by endless strict regulations.
The types of cultures associated with Creative Media Workplaces range from the following: Strong Leadership, Customer Service Excellence, Sales and Innovation.
Workplace Culture #1: Strong Leadership
This type of culture revolves around Mentor-ship programs, coaching programs and leadership training being implemented and stressed. Such as investments in training and software. For example, the company I work for MediaVita introduced me to a couple of Marketing workshops to attend to in my first starting week in order to gain a basic understanding on what Marketing involves.
The Strong Leadership culture is associated with creative media companies companies main goal being to produce the best performing employees and put them on the fast track for leadership positions. This is more likely to be found in a high-end Photography studio for example, every employee there would need to develop their skills more swiftly due to the small amount of job variety included, such as camera photography equipment skills and set management. Therefore training programs and workshops will be introduced to support them. The workplace culture of a high-end Photography studio is also likely to have a much more livelier atmosphere, especially if it is a large environment. This is because it is a more practical job role and requires a lot of communication.
Workplace Culture #2: Customer Service Excellence
This is a workplace culture that emphasizes the ‘customer is always right’ attitude/ For example social media accounts are monitored constantly for customer service related issues, and the phones are always open. Particularity in the creative media sector, Marketing agencies are more likely to adopt this type of workplace culture due to the fact they are heavily reliant on monitoring insights on SEO through the use of Google Analytics. Here the employees would keep a track record of what customers are liking, the websites they are visiting and viewing for longer and top customer reviews. This type of workplace culture revolves around a much more serious atmosphere with possible strict regulations to follow with.
Workplace Culture #3: Sales
A workplace culture revolved around Sales is a strong commitment to consistently hitting quarterly sales goals and quotas, and a general focus on daily activities that will directly generate revenue for the company. In the Creative Media industry Depending on the size, Advertising agencies are more likely to push to meet higher sales and revenue. They now heavily rely on Social Media to reach out to clients and promote their services. Especially if it is a big marketing agency, then a formal set of targets will be organized and prepared for each month ahead, as well as regular performance meetings to keep employees striven and motivated. A formal dress code could be applied for more prestigious, bigger creative media companies but it may vary for some people, depending on their personal culture or religion.
Workplace Culture #4: Innovation
Innovation is a modern workplace culture implemented in the Creative Media Sector. It is a common staple of companies that consistently attempt to stay up to date with the latest industry trends and developments. Strict lines of communication and hierarchies are often involved for the sake of brain storming new ideas to innovate. For example in Creative Media, a high-end photography studio is likely to regularly innovate the props they use, lighting and equipment to attract people’s attention. A Marketing Agency always want to come up with new ideas to gain more followers on social media. Innovation Work Culture usually consists of regular meetings to gain inspiration from employees. It usually focuses on team communication and participation as well as offering flexibility to be able to adopt digital platforms and new strategies.
Culture in Creative Media Sector workplaces is determined by the workforce and targets of that specific company. This is because some Creative Media industry areas of expertise require more focus than others. The culture adopted determines factors such as the amount of flexibility offered, the type of work environment atmosphere, the dress code as well as strict policies put in place.
1.2 Describe examples of challenging behaviors and issues in the workplace
The workplace is typically an environment in which people with different personalities, communication styles and world views interact. These differences are one potential source of workplace issues. Luckily in my position at MediaVita there is only four of us in total so it is much easier for us to communicate. We organize mid-month meetings to catch up and address any issues at the appropriate time. I have always been made to feel safe and welcome, with a tour given to me on my induction day. There is sufficient monitoring of my work, so I am aware of what my strengths and weaknesses are too.
Common Workplace issues that employees face include:
- Interpersonal conflict
- Communication problems
- Low motivation and job satisfaction
- performance issues
One issue in the workplace that is a common occurrence is Bullying/Harassment. This refers to any unwanted behavior that makes someone feel intimidated, degraded, humiliated or offended. It is not necessarily always obvious or apparent to others, and may happen in the workplace without an employer’s awareness. It can be between two individuals or it may involve groups of people. It may be persistent or an isolated incident and can occur in written communication, by phone or through email, not just face-to-face.
Bullying at work can take shape or form in many different ways. Bullying in the workplace can be a very distressing issue and can affect a person’s emotional health. It can make a person feel very low and anxious at the thought of going to work and facing the individual or group. Forms of bullying can vary from name calling, physical abuse, social bullying or even cyber bullying and it is a form of abusive behavior. If an individual or group of people create an intimidating or humiliating work environment for another, this with the purpose of harming their dignity, safety and well-being then it is classed as bullying in the workplace.
Another issue in the workplace is Harassment. This is unwelcome conduct from a boss, coworker, group of coworkers, or customer whose actions, communication, or behavior mocks, demeans or puts down an employee. Physical assaults, threats and intimidation are severe forms of harassment and bullying. It may also include offensive jokes, name-calling, offensive nicknames and offensive pictures or objects. Interfering with an employee’s ability to do his or her work is also considered to be a form of harassment.
Examples of Bullying / Harassing Behaviors could also include:
- Spreading malicious rumours, or insulting someone
- Exclusion or Victimization
- Unfair Treatment
- Deliberately undermining a competent worker by constant criticism
Another challenging issue in the workplace is miscommunication. Workplace miscommunication is a misinterpretation or misconstrued messages that can potentially lead to internal conflict and/or employee dissatisfaction.
Any kind of miscommunication in the workplace, big or small, always has a negative effect on the company and can be a challenging issue to overcome. The areas which start to indicate this being a challenging issue are incomplete tasks, badly affected productivity, poor performances and the downfall of the company’s reputation in the eyes of the employees and the public. Miscommunication can also create a negative atmosphere in the office environment because it can lead to employee conflict.
Example #1: Harassment caused by Miscommunication
For example your company’s harassment policies might not be clearly communicated to employees, or a coworker might think he’s being funny without understanding the scope of harassment. Such as he might think he’s flattering a female co-worker by telling her how beautiful she looks, when in fact, she can misinterpret his comments as sexual harassment.
Example #2: E-mail Communication
E-mail is an essential tool in the workplace, but it can lead to miscommunication. This is because you can’t see the facial expression and body language of the sender or hear their voice, so you might misinterpret the e-mail’s tone. For example, at MediaVita, due to our overly busy nature we will sometimes quickly skim e-mails instead of reading them through. This results in e-mail responses that are incomplete or that don’t make sense.
Example #3: Instructions
Assigning tasks in the workplace is a common area of miscommunication. This is because each person filters instructions given to them through their own communication style. Also some employers may assume that their employees know what is expected of them, compared to other employers who look to clarify roles given. This example of miscommunication in the workplace derives from a lack of clarification of job responsibilities. So when it comes to giving comprehensive instructions to employees with each task, it is important for employers to learn the best ways to communicate with different personalities.
If a person is treated unfairly at work and it’s because of who they are, it may be unlawful discrimination. There are two types of discrimination – Direct and Indirect Discrimination. Direct Discrimination is when an employer treats you differently and worse than someone else because of who you are. Indirect discrimination can be more difficult to spot than direct discrimination. It is when an employer has a practice, policy or rule which applies to other people at work in the same way and so seems fair, but it has a worse effect or particularly disadvantages you and other people like you because of who you are.
Example #1: Dress Code
For example if you’re employer has a dress code or rules on appearance which apply to all its employees it may indirectly discriminate against you, for example if you have a particular religion or belief or are of a particular gender.
Example #2: Working Hours and Flexible Working
If you’re a woman and you have children or if you care for a disabled child or adult, certain requirements relating to working hours or place of work may indirectly discriminate against you. If you ask for flexible working and your employer refuses, you may be able to complain to them about indirect discrimination.
Example #3: Time off work for religious reasons
The Equality Act doesn’t require employers to allow you to take time off work for religious observance to to provide a space for worship at work. However if they refuse, it could be indirect discrimination because of religion and belief.
1.3 Explain the role of the key people to inform in relation to these examples
Bullying/Harassment in the Workplace – Who to inform
If a person is experiencing behavior towards them that makes them feel intimidated or offended at the workplace then they should attempt to sort out the issue informally first. However if they can’t, they should talk to their manager, Human Resources Department or Trade Union Representative.
The Role of Manager/Boss
Your employer has a duty to stop your colleagues from harassing you at work. This includes harassment which takes place outside work at some work-related social events and trips – for example, an office party.
Your manager/boss is responsible for providing a safe and healthy working environment, including protection from bullying and harassment at work. If there happens to be a bullying/harassment situation that occurs, their role is to log it in the company book, investigate the matter and hold a meeting. An organizational statement to all staff about the standards of behavior expected can make it easier for all individuals to be fully aware of their responsibilities to others
If agreed with the person victim to the bullying, then continuous monitoring and observation would need to be put in place to prevent it from happening to other employees. After investigation, your employer may decide to take disciplinary action against the bully/harasser in accordance with the organization disciplinary procedure.
The Role of Human Resources
HR’s primary purpose is to protect the enterprise and ensure a solid, compliant work environment. They are the designated office for addressing workplace bullying. HR meets confidentially with the offended party, hears his or her concerns, and discusses options for responding. While some issues may obligate HR to take more formal steps because they touch upon legal concerns, such as sexual harassment or workplace violence, many more situations will not require such actions.
HR helps targets strategise different approaches. This may include help with coping and stress management strategies, developing skills and strategies for working with or around the bully or confronting the bully in the appropriate manner, requesting HR to step in to create awareness and advise the bully against further acts or retaliation. HR can refer targets to appropriate experts such as the employee assistance program, career and performance coaches, training and development professionals.
Taking Further Action
The Role of the Equality Act
If a bullying or harassment issue isn’t resolved, you can also make a harassment claim in the employment tribunal under the Equality Act. The Equality Act 2010 protects you from harassment at work by your employer or colleagues. The tribunal is independent of government and will listen to you and the person you’re making a claim against before making a decision.
The Role of a Trade Union Official
If you are reluctant to make a complaint, a Trade Union Representative has suitably trained people available to do it for you as their job specifically deals with equality issues. The trade union official are also there to act on your behalf, to confront the bully to stop whatever it is they are doing that is causing distress to another employee. This is because a companies written guidelines, culture and general rules of social etiquette dictate appropriate staff behavior.
1.4 Explain the impact of different behaviors and conduct in the workplace
What Impacts do different behaviors in the workplace have?
Organizations provide a code of conduct to explain which behaviors are and are not permitted by employees. For example proper office conduct is important when interacting with co-workers. Polite behavior between employees creates a pleasant work environment. However negative attitudes cause misunderstandings and differences, which can create a hostile workplace. This could lead to a wide scope of problems for the employer, such as low productivity, loss of employees and possible legal action. In the workplace there can be various personalities and cultural beliefs which can influence positive and negative behavior. Inappropriate behavior at the office is distracting for other employees and interrupts the workflow.
Behavior in the workplace can significantly affect an employee’s performance. Whether that is positive or negative behavior, it is often related to emotions and attitude about the work environment itself. Positive behavior on the job can increase the employee’s chances of moving up to the corporate ladder, just as negative behavior can put a hold on an employee’s career. Arriving to work with a positive attitude, you are generally more creative and tolerant of others so it minimizes the risk of employee conflict and disruption.
If managers/bosses implement a sense of trust and cooperativeness in their workplace, they are more successful than those who do not. This is because employees are happier and more comfortable, so they are more likely to work better. Same as if managers treat their employees well and in a polite manner, this reflects great loyalty. If managers portray a sense of hard work, dedication and positive team work, then this is likely to have a domino affect on the rest of their employees and increase their productivity.
What Impacts do Conducts in the workplace have?
Every company is expected to have some type of organized workplace code of conduct in place. This helps to establish acceptable standards of behavior for all employees. The benefit of a code of conduct is that it serves as the moral code by which we can all judge what is right and wrong. Not following the Code of conduct in the workplace may result in breaches of laws and regulations. For employees it could also mean disciplinary action or dismissal.
Although some code of conducts in the workplace can have drawbacks, particularly if it makes employees feel uncomfortable. A companies code of conduct should be reconsidered if it cannot be applied equally and fits all employees. For example Code of Conducts sometimes restrict employees outside of the workplace, which is wrong. Another negative impact is that a workplace code of conduct reflects their established culture and working ethos, however this can conflict with an employee’s individual values and beliefs.
2 Know How to Plan and Manage Workload
2.1 Describe effective time management skills needed to plan workload
Time managements is an essential responsibility when planning a sufficient workload. It maintains productivity at a high standard and also helps to priorities workload correctly and efficiently.
Time management skills include the following:
- Goal Setting – What is achievable
- Prioritization – What comes first
- Self-Awareness/Motivation – Maintain Productivity
- Planning – Dividing workload between colleagues.
- Communication – Catch-up meetings
- Team Work – Work effectively with others
- Record Keeping – Tasks completed
Setting Yourself Goals
When struggling about what to focus your time on first, you should set yourself achievable and effective goals. This encourages the use of your time in an organized manner which serves your goals. There are many ways to set yourself goals in the workplace to plan a workload. They can include creating a daily checklist either typed or a written, setting a timer on a digital device to know when you need to move onto the next task and to create a group of targets at your performance review to meet by the end of the month.
One time management skill to plan a work load is Prioritization. Prioritization supports the time management when planning a workload as it helps to balance each task. This is because some may have a shorter deadline or hold more importance than others. For effective prioritization skills, you need to have the ability to eliminate the tasks you should not be performing or are not your individual responsibility. It also involves the capability to switch your focus on completing the most valuable work you can with the time and reduces already available to you. This improves time management rapidly as it provides you with a clear and organized workload plan.
This skill is useful because it allows you to discover what methods work best for you when completing tasks. This is through paying high attention and making use of trial and error. As a result this portrays self-awareness because you can analyses what your strengths and weaknesses are. For example, you may realize that you need more time for certain job tasks compared to others so you can plan your work load more accurately. One factor that influences self-motivation are effective goal setting and successful tasks completed. Sometimes observing what your colleagues are doing can encourage self-motivation because it increase the level of competitiveness.
Planning is another time management skill which can involve the action of dividing job tasks between you and your colleagues. This could be for much bigger projects where you believe it will need a much more supportive network. For example, at my work MediaVita we use a website called Dapulse.com which has our monthly job task schedule. This enables my manager/boss to assign jobs directly to me so I know exactly what I need to do.
Communication and Team Work
Communication and team work is vital for effective time management. The purpose of communication is being able to notify other colleagues once tasks have been completed. This prevents any misunderstanding or miscommunications that could disrupt the work flow. As a result this stresses the importance of being able to work effectively with other colleagues. For example if two employees do not cooperate together, there is likely to be mistakes made with certain projects.
Record keeping is another important time management skill as it determines what tasks are yet to be completed. Regardless of your area of expertise, it is vital that accurate information is passed onto the corporate team. This information should be presented in a clear, easy to understand and organized fashion in order to prevent miscommunications. Record keeping is a great skill for workload planning as it reflects the amount of productivity you are capable of.
2.2 Describe how to specify and agree timescales, budgets and resources
Before completing a task – work out the project at hand and what you are dealing with. For example are there any strict requirements that the client has set. Once this has been established, those requirements can be fulfilled with the accurate criteria.
To specify the timescale of a planned workload, the task needs to be identified beforehand. For example if it is a lengthy project and can be developed over the next few months, it is important to create a schedule of a time during the day you will be able to spend time on it.
If a workload has a strict upcoming deadline then the timescale will be significantly shorter in which you will have to complete it. Therefore it will need to be prioritized over other tasks. Especially if it has to be proofed and posted in time to be used for a special event.
To specify a timescale for tasks at my company MediaVita, we already have organized estimated timescales set for certain workloads. For example to create and publish a website SEO page, it should only take max 45 minutes to an hour. However for design work on Photoshop/Indesign, it is acceptable to spend a few hours on it.
Budgets are an integral part of running any business efficiently and effectively. Most companies will start with a master, or static, budget. This is discussed after identifying the amount of available funds there is within the company. A static budget is a budget with numbers based on planned outputs and inputs for each of the divisions. For example where I work at MediaVita our directors always specify to our clients an estimated price although they are open to discussion. On some occasions a budget already specified may have to increase if a project has required the download of extra software or the purchase of stock images, plugins, themes or firewalls.
It is essential that resources are planned ahead before any workloads are carried out. This is where you will need to discover what you will need at hand in order to complete it all. For example, you may realize that there are multiple software required to use for the task, so it is important to check for version updates to download beforehand. This is because some fonts can be lost on software such as Photoshop/Indesign.
Another set of resources that companies like MediaVita will need is high tech camera equipment paired with appropriate lighting and tripods. This is useful for photo shoots when vising a client in order to finalize their website etc. Therefore to store this footage, memory resources will be needed in order to keep it safe and confidential, such as a memory stick, a memory card or hard drive. To support the roll out of this content, another resource needed might be to utilize a specialist designer/printer.
2.3 Explain How to Construct a Simple Project Plan
.Every project requires detailed project planning as it helps us to identify the needs of the project and what needs to be done for the success of the project. It also makes a managers life easier.
Purpose of a Project Plan:
- Provides milestones to track the progress of the project
- Defines project’s output and scope
- Forecast your resource requirement
- Clear all the processes
- Manages integration
- Enables you to baseline your project
How to create a simple project plan: Step-by step Approach
Step 1 – Identify & Meet with Stakeholders
A stakeholder is anyone who’s affected by the results of your project. This includes your customers and end users too. It is important to identify all stakeholders and keep their interests in mind when creating a project plan.
Meet with the project sponsors and key stakeholders to discuss their requirements and expectations, and establish baselines for project scope, budget and timescale (deadlines). Once collected this information, it is advised to record the details onto a document to reduce the chances of miscommunications.
Step 2 – Set & Prioritize Goals
Once a list is made of the stakeholder needs, you should prioritize them and set specific project goals. These should outline the objectives of the project – the benefits you hope to achieve.
Step 3 – Define Variables
A variable is a factor or element that has the freedom to change. Here it is crucial to identify the deliverables you need to product in order to meet the goals set, such as the specific products expected to be complete. Next, estimate due dates for each deliverable in your project plan.
Step 4 – Create the Project Schedule
Analyze each deliverable and define the group of tasks that need to be completed in order to accomplish each one. For each task, determine the amount of time it will take, the resources necessary and who will be responsible for it’s completion.
Following on to the next stage where you need to discuss any dependencies. Such as do certain tasks need to be completed before others can begin. Finally input the deliverables, dependencies and milestones into a chosen online template or app available for project schedules.
Step 5 – Identify issues and Complete a Risk Assessment
With every project there are risks that need to be addressed. For example if you know any issues upfront that will affect your project, like a team member’s holiday then communication is important to find that extra needed support. This step should involve considering the steps you could take to either prevent certain risks happening, or limit the negative impact. Therefore conducting a risk assessment and developing a risk management strategy will ensure key preparation.
Step 6 – Present the Project Plan to Stakeholders
Explain how your plan addresses stakeholders’ expectations, and present your solutions to any queries. It should be a discussion presentation, where the roles are determined as to who sees which reports and the decisions that will need approval. The stakeholders will need to know exactly what is expected of them and the actions they’re possible for. Avoid telling stakeholders their expectation or request is unrealistic, just tell them what’s required to make it happen. For example how much time, how much money and resources.
2.4 Explain the use of a contingency plan
A contingency is anything that occurs outside the range of normal operations, that may adversely affect an organization’s ability to operate. A contingency plan is simply used as a backup plan, activated in the event of a disaster that disrupts a company’s production and puts employees in danger.
Prevention – Avoid the threat or problem
Reduction – Reduce the level of risk
Transference – Transfer the risk to a third-party
- Allows an organization to return to it’s daily operations as quickly as possible after an unforeseen event.
- Protects resources, minimizes customs inconvenience and identifies key staff, assigning specific responsibilities in the context of the recovery
- They are organization-wide and department-specific – for example information services departments typically have a disaster recovery plan to protect restore and use company data, including computer hardware, software instructional manuals.
- Designed to help an organization respond effectively to a significant future event or situation that may or may not happen.
- used as an alternative for action if expected results fail to materialize
- Risk Management support and disaster recovery
- Management teams can use it to address shortfalls in revenue or unexpected cost increases in time to minimize the impact on the company’s profitability
- They provide a blueprint that businesses can use to extract maximum benefit from unexpectedly good market conditions – for example, a mortgage company that sees loan demand rise to unusually high levels in one region of the country will have a contingency plan to quickly open additional sales offices and hire more loan officers.
2.5 Explain the importance of storing work, using version control and observing file naming conventions
A successful business requires quality information systems to process all the data and statistics. Information systems are convenient when it comes to storing data you’ll need in a few years time. Storing data means your company will be well organized, come up with quick solutions and make faster decisions under any circumstance.
One reason why it is vital to store work is because you are then able to make refinements to a piece of work, in the middle of completion. Therefore you are able to share your time with other projects. While storing work, it is also important to use version control. This is where a file is saved as a specific draft number. It is particularly useful if you are re-creating the same piece of work or rolling out two visuals of this piece of work. Therefore you can go to the folder it is saved and retrieve the right version file.
Storing work is required for a company to succeed as it avoids the chances of any information being misfiled. Especially if work is stored manually, via a computer hard drive or memory stick. As well as doing a monthly back-up of data, in case of an incident that could wipe all of their work. With work being stored correctly, this makes it easier for employees to go back and track their history of work, confidential client data or financial statistics. If information is misfiled then it could jeopardize a business’s production and reputation.
One reason for the importance of storing work is that is speeds up the retrieval of information. If a piece of work is stored manually, in a named folder then an employee is able to find it a lot easier. Therefore it maintains productivity in a company as employees are not spending hours trying to search for a file.
Every company has to meet privacy and confidentiality policies, so it important that client related or financial data is kept stored safely. This prevents the chances of the information being hacked into and stolen.
It is important to store work in order to allow future access of the data. If a piece of work is finalized, an employee still might need to use it again in the future. Once this work is stored, it can then be transferred onto a memory stick or hard drive for employees to take with them at a conference, event or for working from home days. This also then allows the retrieve of work on other devices.
Storing work is important for the action of sharing files with other employees. Once work is stored, it can be exported as another type of document or uploaded to software such as Google Drive to back it up. The work can also be sent to others via software such as Wetransfer/Dropbox/Email etc.
It is crucial to store work as it increases safety and stability of a company’s data/information system. A company is reliant upon a system in order to maintain organization. Once work has been stored, employees have the ability to control that data and adjust it to how they prefer. There is also increased security of your data once stored. This is because viruses can easily wipe out data and it’s imperative that back-up solutions are in place in order to quickly retrieve wiped files.
Storing data on external hard drives or using some form of cloud storage system is also a reliable strategy for disaster recovery solutions in the event of a fire or flood – where data is lost/damaged. Also for certain businesses there may also be legal compliance requirements that mean certain historic information must be stored as part of data retention policies.
3 Understand the importance of continuous professional development
3.1 Explain what is meant by ‘continuous professional development’
Continuous professional development refers to the process of tracking and documenting the skills, knowledge and experience that you gain both formally and informally as you work, beyond any initial training.
It’s a record of what your experience, learn and then apply. The term is generally used to mean a portfolio documenting your development as a professional. It should be a planned process to maintain and develop professional competence, creativity and innovation. Continuing professional development helps to ensure your skills and knowledge are up to date. Any learning activity which maintains, develops or increases knowledge, technical skills, problem solving or professional performance standards can be included in the continuing professional development toolbox.
CPD (Continuous Professional Development) is the process for setting yourself objectives for development then charting your progress towards achieving them. A person’s CPD should help them decide the areas of skill and knowledge that are relevant to their role. It is a combination of approaches, ideas and techniques that will help you manage your own learning and growth. CPD can be provided by specialist companies (e.g. commercial training provider, independent coaches), or provided internally, in particular by larger organisations.
3.2 Creating a personal development Plan
Become part of the production field – organise meetings, monitor and control the admin work
Attend local workshops for Digital Marketing to build my skills and knowledge as well as network with new people. This can be free or paid for by my employer depending on the importance of it.
Present my ideas to the team during our meetings – discuss our strengths, weaknesses, targets/goals.
3.3 Opportunities for training and development
Client invitations to conferences etc. – build more prospect and knowledge